Course code:
Course name:
Fundamentals of Biotechnology

Academic year:


Attendance requirements:

064B2 + 412B2



Study level:

basic academic studies

Study program:

Biochemistry: 4. year, winter semester, compulsory course


Vladimir P. Beškoski, Ph.D.
full professor, Faculty of Chemistry, Studentski trg 12-16, Beograd


Hours of instruction:

Weekly: three hours of lectures + five hours of labwork (3+0+5)


The structure, function, physiological-biochemical-metabolic properties and the specificity and role of microbial cells in the nature. "Biological agents", the potentials, methods and products of biotechnology (BTH) and patents/patenting process.


Theoretical and experimental knowledge of chemical and biochemical activity of microorganisms (MO) and other "biological agents", the potential and importance of their biotechnological application and biotechnology as one of the key domains of the progress of civilization.

Teaching methods:

Interactive teaching, laboratory classes and term papers.

Extracurricular activities:

Searching for and collecting literature, preparing for laboratory classes, writing a term paper and preparing for the exam.


  1. S. Prentis: Biotechnology, Orbis Publishing. London, 1984.
  2. D. Pejin: Industrijska mikrobiologija, Tehnološki fakultet, Novi Sad, 2003.
  3. D. A. Đukić, V. T. Jemcev: Mikrobiološka biotehnologija, Dereta, Beograd, 2003.
  4. J. Baras, V. B. Veljković, S. Popov, D. Povrenović, M. Lazić, B. Zlatković: Osnovi bioprocesnog inženjerstva (CD ROM), Tehnološki fakultet, Leskovac, 2009.
  5. G. Gojgić-Cvijović, M. M. Vrvić: Praktikum za mikrobiološku hemiju, IHTM - Centar za hemiju, Beograd, 2003.
  6. V. B. Veljković, M. L. Lazić: Praktikum za osnovne procese biohemijskog iženjerstva, Tehnološki fakultet, Leskovac, 1993.
  7. M. M. Vrvić i V. P. Beškoski: Materijali sa predavanja i vežbi

Additional material:

  Course activities and grading method


5 points (3 hours a week)


  • The role and importance of microorganisms in the living world.
  • The structure and function of microbial cells.
  • The biochemistry of microorganisms.
  • Introduction to biotechnology.
  • The regulation of microbial metabolism and biotechnology.
  • Genetic modifications of microorganisms in biotechnology. Elements of molecular biotechnology. Bioinformatics in biotechnology.
  • Introduction to biochemical engineering.
  • Bioreactors. Controlling and managing biotechnological processes.
  • Immobilized "biological agents" in biotechnology.
  • Isolation of biotechnology products.
  • Primary and secondary metabolism and its products in biotechnology.
  • Environmental biotechnology and biogeotechnology.
  • Plant biotechnology and animal biotechnology and products. Genetically modified organisms as food. Stem cells in human biotechnology.
  • Intellectual property protection in biotechnology.


15 points (5 hours a week)


  • Borrowing laboratory glassware, the Winogradsky column.
  • Determination of biochemical properties of microorganisms (the Gram staining, hydrolysis of starch, gelatin, lipids; using citrates; the detection of the respiratory enzymes such as oxidase and catalase; the products of protein decomposition such as hydrogen sulfide and ammonia; hemolytic activity).
  • Aerobic and anaerobic yeast fermentation, the Pasteur Effect; microbiological production of antibiotics, the fermentation of Streptomyces hygroscopicus.
  • Proteolytic enzymes of the Streptomyces hygroscopicus strain, antimicrobial activity.
  • Isolation of auxotrophic mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  • Determination of the kLa using the sulfite oxidation method; determination of aeration capacity of a laboratory fermenter by absorption-desorption method using an oxygen electrode; calculations: stoichiometry, thermodynamics and kinetics of microbiological processes.
  • Biogeotechnology: a) Biohydrometallurgy – integrated chemical and microbiological leaching of metals. Determining the number of thiobacteria in microtiter plates and leaching from electronic waste (inductively coupled plasma – ICP); b) Microbial fuel cells.
  • The bioremediation of the soil contaminated with petroleum and petroleum derivatives. Sampling, a microbiological analysis (total chemoorganoheterotrophs, hydrocarbon degraders, yeasts and mold spores), chemical-physical characterization (pH, dry matter, total petroleum hydrocarbons, elemental analysis, inorganic carbon).
  • Returning the borrowed laboratory glassware and the preparation for the test.
  • The final test.

Semester papers:

15 points


30 points

Oral exam:

35 points